In recent months I have been reading E. Isaac’s translation of 1 Enoch (that’s the Ethiopian Enoch, not to be confused with 2 Enoch in Old Church Slavonic or 3 Enoch in Hebrew), in James H. Charlesworth, Ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Vol. 1: Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments, Vol. 1 (1983), pgs. 5-89.  I have been lead into the Enoch material by my recent fascination–nay obsession–with the works of Margaret Barker (including The Lost Prophet: The Book of Enoch and Its influence on Christianity).
The following will constitute my prelimary research notes on the 1 Enoch material for later contemplation, and further questioning and digging.
  • I have frequently read that the Book of Enoch is quoted some 128 times in the New Testament, but I have never found a definitive list. Hence, I set out to compile my own list, with some references supplied by Laurence, Charlesworth, Aland, etc. With this head start and many, many passages found on my own, I have identified 119 New Testament verses quoting, alluding to or clearly written under the influence of 1 Enoch. See table below.
  • Based upon my preliminary reading, the influence of 1 Enoch upon the New Testament writers is enormous. Indeed, it appears to exceed the influence of any single book from the Old Testament. For example, Genesis is quoted in the New Testament 26 times; Exodus 34 times; Psalms 89 times; and Isaiah 77 times. The 1 Enoch material in the New Testament is overwhelming.
  • The Enoch quotes in the New Testament are very prominent, pertaining to key doctrines. It is impossible to marginalize the Enoch material in the New Testament. For example, there are Enoch quotes in the Sermon on the Mount.
  • In most cases, the Enoch quotes are unique in Pre-Christian literature. In other words, there are no clear parallels of the quoted Enoch doctrines in other Old Testament books.
  • It is interesting that the books which seem to quote most copiously from 1 Enoch–Revelation, John, Hebrews, James, Jude, Peter’s Epistles, etc.–are the very books whose canonicity was considered most “questionable” by some Church Fathers of the Third and Fourth Centuries. For example, in the canon of Eusebius, 311 A.D., James, Jude, 2nd Peter and 2nd and 3rd John were identified as “Disputed Books” and the Apocalypse of John (Revelation) was listed as a “Spurious Book.” See Bart D. Ehrman’s Lost Scriptures: Books that Did Not Make It into the New Testamentpage 337 (Oxford University Press, 2003). This leads to many questions. How could the later Church Fathers question the Enoch material so strenuously, when the Apostles and the writers of the Primitive Church had quoted from it so copiously?
  • Although I set out to limit my comparative studies to 1 Enoch and the New Testament, the parallels in the Book of Mormon literally jumped off the page as I read. Hugh Nibley and John Welch had provided references to a handful of isolated verses, which were a good starting place. With just a cursory first reading I have identified 29 Book of Mormon verses plainly quoting from or alluding to 1 Enoch.
  • Most stunning to me are the Book of Mormon verses in 1 Nephi which have such very clear parallels to 1 Enoch. For example, in both 1 Enoch 24 and 25 and 1 Nephi 11 the prophet figures are shown theophanic visions, are lead by angelic guides, and are shown a representation of the Tree of Life. The following parallel verses are only a sampling of the many stunning parallels: First from 1 Enoch 25:1 “And he said unto me, Enoch, ‘What is it that you are asking me concerning the fragrance of this tree you are so inquisitive about?’ At that moment, I answered, saying, “I am desirous of knowing everything, but specially about this thing [i.e., the tree].” And then from 1 Nephi 11:9-11 “And it came to pass after I had seen the tree, I said unto the Spirit: I behold thou hast shown unto me the tree which is precious above all. And he said unto me: What desirest thou? And I said unto him: To know the interpretation thereof.”
  • The appearance of the 1 Enoch material in the Book of Mormon is fascinating in light of the chronology of events posited by Nephi in 1st Nephi, as follows: First, Lehi sends his sons to return to Jerusalem to obtain the brass plates containing the scriptures (we need not suppose, by the way, that these scriptures were limited to what is now contained in our “Old Testament”–they may have been much more comprehensive); second, after his sons return with the brass plates, Lehi reads them from cover to cover; third, he soon thereafter has a dream of the Tree of Life.  Because of the striking–indeed stunning–parallels between 1 Enoch 25 and the 1 Nephi Tree of Life dream material (particularly in 1 Nephi 11), I suggest the possibility that Lehi’s dream was triggered by his recent reading of 1 Enoch (or an earlier version of 1 Enoch).  It is a fascinating speculation.
  • As to my very prelimary study of the Enoch material in the Book of Mormon, I echo this statement from Terryl Givens: “[A]ttributing to a young farmboy the 90-day dictated and unrevised production of a 500-page narrrative that incorporates sophisticated literary structures, remarkable old world parallels, and some 300 references to chronology and 700 to geography with virtually perfect self-consistency, is problematic.” Terryl L. Givens, By the Hand of Mormon: The American Scripture that Launched a New World Religion, Oxford University Press, 2002, Chapter 6, pg. 156.

The following shows the 1 Enoch references in boldface, using Charlesworth’s chapters and verses, followed by the verses in the New Testament and the Book of Mormon which are clearly quotations, allusions or strong verbal parallels from the 1 Enoch text.

  1. 1 Enoch 1:2 — 1 Peter 1:12
  2. 1 Enoch 1:9 — Matthew 25:31; and Jude 1:14-15
  3. 1 Enoch 6:5-8 — 1 Nephi 19:10-16
  4. 1 Enoch 7:4 — Acts 15:20
  5. 1 Enoch 8:3 — 1 Nephi 19:10
  6. 1 Enoch 9:4 — 1 Timothy 6:15; Revelation 15:3; Revelation 17:14; and Revelation 19:16
  7. 1 Enoch 9:3-4 — 1 Nephi 1:14
  8. 1 Enoch 10:4-6 — Jude 1:6
  9. 1 Enoch 10:7 — Romans 8:18-21
  10. 1 Enoch 10:12 — Jude 1:6
  11. 1 Enoch 10:13-14 — Matthew 25:41; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 20:14; and Revelation 20:15
  12. 1 Enoch 12:1-2 — 1 Timothy 6:16
  13. 1 Enoch 12-14 — 1 Peter 3:18-20; and 1 Peter 4:6
  14. 1 Enoch 13:10 — 1 Corinthians 6:3
  15. 1 Enoch 14:3 — 1 Corinthians 6:3
  16. 1 Enoch 14:8 — Matthew 17:5
  17. 1 Enoch 14:16, 19 — Revelation 5:11
  18. 1 Enoch 14:8-25 — 1 Nephi 1:5-12
  19. 1 Enoch 14:18-19 — Revelation 4:2-3
  20. 1 Enoch 15:6-7 — Luke 20:34-36
  21. 1 Enoch 16:1 — Matthew 8:29-32
  22. 1 Enoch 19:3 — 1 Peter 4:7
  23. 1 Enoch 22:3 — Matthew 24:31
  24. 1 Enoch 22:1-3 — Matthew 24:30; and Mark 13:24
  25. 1 Enoch 22:5-7 — Revelation 6:9-10
  26. 1 Enoch 25:1 — 1 Nephi 11:9-11
  27. 1 Enoch 25:1-5 — Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2; and Revelation 22:14
  28. 1 Enoch 27:2 — Matthew 5: 29-30
  29. 1 Enoch 38:2 — John 1:1-9
  30. 1 Enoch 38:2 — Matthew 26:24; and Mark 14:21
  31. 1 Enoch 38:4 — Matthew 17:2; 2 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Corinthians 4:6; Mosiah 13:5; and Helaman 5:36
  32. 1 Enoch 41:2 — John 14:2-3
  33. 1 Enoch 45:3 — John 14:23
  34. 1 Enoch 45:4-5 — Revelation 21:1-3
  35. 1 Enoch 46:3 — John 4; and Colossians 2:2-3
  36. 1 Enoch 48:4 — Luke 2:32; Acts 13:47; Acts 26:23; and 1 Nephi 21:6
  37. 1 Enoch 48:5 — Romans 15:9; Hebrews 2:12; and Alma 26:8
  38. 1 Enoch 49:4 — Alma 5:16-17
  39. 1 Enoch 51:1 – Revelation 20:13; and 2 Nephi 9:12
  40. 1 Enoch 56:5-8 — Revelation 20
  41. 1 Enoch 58:5-6 — Ephesians 3:10; 1 Peter 1:12; and Romans 13:12
  42. 1 Enoch 61:7 — Hebrews 5:12
  43. 1 Enoch 62:2 — Revelation 19:15
  44. 1 Enoch 62:4 — Mark 13:8; and 1 Thessalonians 5:3
  45. 1 Enoch 62:5 — Matthew 24:30; and Matthew 25:31-46
  46. 1 Enoch 62:5-11 — 1 Corinthians 2:6
  47. 1 Enoch 62:13-16 — Matthew 17:2; Matthew 26:29; Matthew 28:3; Mark 9:3; Mark 16:5; Luke 9:29; Acts 1:10; 1 Thessalonians 4:17; 2 Corinthians 5:1-3; Revelation 3:4; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 3:18; Revelation 4:4; Revelation 7:13; Revelation 19:8; 1 Nephi 12:10; 1 Nephi 12:11; Alma 5:21; Alma 5:24; Alma 5:27; Alma 13:11; Alma 34:36; 3 Nephi 19:25; and Ether 13:10
  48. 1 Enoch 71:1 — See references for 1 Enoch 62:13-16
  49. 1 Enoch 71:5-13 — Revelation 21:10-11; Acts 2:3-4; and Compare numerous parallels with 1 Nephi 1
  50. 1 Enoch 71 — Numerous references in both the NT and Book of Mormon
  51. 1 Enoch 71:15 – Hebrews 2:5
  52. 1 Enoch 71:16 — Romans 8:35-39
  53. 1 Enoch 72:1 — 2 Peter 3:13; and Revelation 21:1
  54. 1 Enoch 89:65-67 — 1 Nephi 21:1
  55. 1 Enoch 90:26-27 — Matthew 23:33
  56. 1 Enoch 90:29 — Hebrews 3:6; and Hebrews 13:14
  57. 1 Enoch 91:3-4 — James 1:6-8
  58. 1 Enoch 91:5-7 — Luke 21:9; and 2 Thessalonians 2:3
  59. 1 Enoch 91:10-11 — 1 Thessalonians 4:14-15
  60. 1 Enoch 93:1-16 — Matthew 23:37-38
  61. 1 Enoch 94:8-9 – James 5:1-6; and Helaman 13:31-5
  62. 1 Enoch 95:4-7 — Matthew 23:13-33
  63. 1 Enoch 96:1 — 1 Thessalonians 5:1-3
  64. 1 Enoch 97:10 — Helaman 13:31
  65. 1 Enoch 99:2 — Romans 16:20
  66. 1 Enoch 100:3 — Revelation 14:20
  67. 1 Enoch 100:5 — 1 Thessalonians 4:13
  68. 1 Enoch 100:9 — 1 Thessalonians 1:7-9; Hebrews 10:27; Hebrews 12:18; Hebrews 12:29; Revelation 18:8; and Revelation 20:9
  69. 1 Enoch 103:8 — Matthew 23:32
  70. 1 Enoch 104:1 — Matthew 18:10
  71. 1 Enoch 104:2 — Matthew 13:43; Philippians 2:15; and Alma 40:25
  72. 1 Enoch 104:3 — Alma 34:17-27; and 3 Nephi 24:5
  73. 1 Enoch 104:4 — Hebrews 10:23
  74. 1 Enoch 105:2 — John 14:23; 2 John 1:4; and 3 John 1:4
  75. 1 Enoch 107:1 — Revelation 20:2; and 1 Nephi 22:6
  76. 1 Enoch 108:2 — 1 Timothy 4:1; and 2 Timothy 3:1
  77. 1 Enoch 108:7 — Ephesians 3:10; and 1 Peter 1:12
  78. 1 Enoch 108:11-13 — Matthew 13:43; 1 Corinthians 15:51; Ephesians 2:6; Colossians 1:12-13; Alma 5:50; and Alma 40:25

My future steps in research will be to study the heavily-annotated edition of 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch Chapters 1-36, 81-108 (Hermeneia: a Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible), edited by George W. E. Nickelsburg and James C. Vanderkam (Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2004) and to create a more complete list of parallel citations from 1 Enoch in both the New Testament and the Book of Mormon. Should my ambition hold, some of the future questions and answers may appear herein in the future.